This is the PDF eBook version for Cardiorenal Syndrome – Mechanisms, Risk and Treatment by Adel E. Berbari, Giuseppe Mancia
Table of Contents
Introduction: Links between chronic kidney (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD): a bidirectional relationship.- Cross talk between the cardiovascular system and the kidney: Structural and functional similarities between vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and glomerular mesangial cells (GMC). Regulation of VSMC and GMC by common mediators in health and disease.- Chronic kidney as a risk for the development of cardiovascular disease: Epidemiologic links between impaired renal function and cardiovascular events. Definition and classification of stages of severity of CKD. Classification of cardiovascular risk factors in CKD. Spectrum of CVD in CKD. Mechanisms of cardiovascular complications in CKD.- Cardiovascular disease as a promoter of CKD: Mechanisms. Prognostic significance.- Therapeutic modalities.